Previous Next Methods Allocation  
4.3 Elementary Method "Bar Chart" (BAR)  

  4.3 Elementarmethode "Balkenplan" (BALK)

Contents  
  • 1 Identification/Definition of the Method
  • 2 Brief Characteristic of the Method
  • 3 Limits of the Methods Application
  • 4 Specification of the Methods Allocation
  • 5 Interfaces
  • 6 Further Literature
  • 7 Functional Tool Requirements
  • 1 Identification/Definition of the Method

    /Litke, 1991/ chap. 3.3.4.2.2

    2 Brief Characteristic of the Method

    Objective and Purpose

    The Bar Chart (BAR) or GANTT diagram is a method applied for the scheduling and control of projects. It is used to illustrate duration and time sequence of the activities in a project.

    Means of Representation

    Begin, end, and duration of the project activities are entered into a calender in form of a bar. Depending on the objective of the bar chart, they might be differently grouped and represented so e. g. an allocation to staff members is included. The grid of the calender adheres to the level of refinement or the planning and to the size and complexity of the project; normally it is structured into months or weeks.

    The control of actual and planned value is realized by differentiating between actual and planned bars in the representation (e. g. color, shade). Deviations from the planned status can easily be detected by means of the calender entries.

    3 Limits of the Methods Application

    The Bar Chart only shows the time sequence of activities, not its logical dependences. With regard to complex arrangements of activities, the bar chart must thus only be used for the preliminary planning as well as for the personnel and resource planning. The detailed planning must then be realized with network plans.

    The interpretations of the bar chart mentioned below schedule, milestone, personnel, and resource plan depend on each other. Changing a target date in one of the plans usually results in modifications in one or several other plans. In planning activities, the highest priority should be given to the factor limiting most.

    4 Specification of the Methods Allocation

    No. Activity Description
    4.1 PM1.5
    Generation of Preliminary Plan
    The Bar Chart will be applied under different aspects:

    In the schedule plan, the activity-related effort planning and time scheduling will be documented (subproducts in question: Project Plan.Deadlines (Planned and Actual) for SD/QA/CM/PM Activities, Project Plan.Delivery and Supply Deadlines).

    The milestone plan includes the documentation of the scheduling for important project states (subproduct in question: Project Plan.Milestone Plan).

    The personnel plan documents the staff-member-related deadline effort planning and time scheduling (subproduct in question: Project Plan.Staff).

    The resource plan documents the resource planning of hardware, software, equipment, and infrastructure (subproduct in question: Project Plan.Resources).

    1. "Scheduling Plan"

      The Scheduling Plan illustrates the activities of the project by means of a time axis. This shows begin, end and duration of each activity and possibly the interrupt times as well.

      By applying the method BAR, the subproduct Project Plan.Deadlines (Planned and Actual) for SD/QA/CM/PM Activities is completely covered. It has to be mentioned, however, that the coverage of BAR in PM1.5 - Generation of Preliminary Plan and PM4 - Detailed Planning only comprises the planned time scheduling; the application in PM 8 (see below) will then complete the comparison of planned and actual values.

    2. "Milestone Plan"

      Apart from the baselines which set up important milestones in a project, further milestones like e. g. the completion of a prototype, the begin of the software/hardware integration, and all supply and delivery deadlines will be specified here.

      By applying the method BAR, the subproducts Project Plan.Milestone Plan and Project Plan.Delivery and Supply Deadlines will be completely covered.

    3. "Personnel Plan"

      The project activities are allocated to individual staff members in the personnel plan and then illustrated on the time axis. This shows which project activities are intended for which staff member, and also the begin, the end, and the duration of each project activity as well as possible interrupt times and personal loading.

      By applying the method BAR, the subproduct Project Plan.Staff is completely covered.

    4. "Resource Plan"

      The resource plan shows the utilization of the resources required by the project. The time axis illustrates the extent and the duration during which equipment, devices and further infrastructure are required.

      By applying the method BAR, the subproduct Project Plan.Resources is completely covered.

    4.2 PM4
    Detailed Planning
    The information listed under 4.1 goes for the "Detailed Planning" too. In PM1.5 - Generation of Preliminary Plan, BAR is applied with regard to the main activities of the project; in PM4 - Detailed Planning, BAR is applied with regard to the subactivities, up to the lowest level.

    BAR is applied in the sense of a

    4.3 PM8
    Project Control
    Here the method BAR will be applied for an actual/planning control. It is realized by comparing the actually occurred deadlines and the actually utilized resources with the values planned in the bar chart. The result is entered into the report documents. Therefore it is not possible in this case to talk about the coverage of the product.

    Activity PM8 - Project Control is covered by the supplementary application of the methods EVT - Earned Value Method and TRDA - Trend Analysis which both make information about the actual/planned status possible under various aspects. In this connection, BAR produces the information about the actual situation of the project as compared to the planned deadlines.

    4.4 QA1.2
    Generation the Assessment Plan
    Method BAR is applied in the sense of a scheduling plan (compare 4.1 [1]) and also in the sense of a resource plan (compare 4.1 [4]). In both case, BAR is sufficient for covering the subproduct Assessment Plan.Time Schedule.
    4.5 SD2.6
    Specification of System Integration

    SD4.3
    Specification of SW Integration

    Method BAR is applied within the scope of the SD activities in the sense of a scheduling plan (compare 4.1 [1]). BAR thus meets the requirements for the subproduct Integration Plan.Integration Network Plan.
    4.6 SD1.8
    Generation of Software Maintenance and Modification Concept
    Method BAR is applied within the scope of this activity in the sense of a scheduling plan (compare 4.1 [1]). BAR thus meets the requirements for the subproduct SWMM Concept.Transition to Utilization with regard to the chronological plan of the transition process.

    5 Interfaces

    No. Interface Observation Information in Annex 1
    5.1 BAR-NPT The results generated for the activity list within the scope of the structural analysis of the NPT - Network Planning Technique are used as the basis for a Bar Chart.

    When converting the bar chart into a framework for the network plan, the content and subject of the work packages, the effort and duration as well as the begin and the end deadlines, the allocation of the work packages to the projects, personnel, etc. will be used.

    When converting the network plan into a bar chart, the content and subject of the work packages, the effort and duration as well as the begin and the end deadlines of the work packages will be used.

    4.2 Interface BAR-NPT

    6 Literature

    /Boehm, 1981/ Software Engineering Economics
    /BUND, 1986/ Planungslehrmappe der Fortbildungsinstitutionen des Bundes
    /Litke, 1991/ Projektmanagement: Methoden, Techniken, Verhaltensweisen
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ Ploenzke Informatik

    7 Functional Tool Requirements

    SPM04 - Supporting Planning of the Project Realization

    Previous Next GDPA Online Last Updated 01.Jan.2002 Updated by Webmaster Last Revised 01.Jan.2002 Revised by Webmaster