Standard Dimensions  

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Standard Dimensions


Reference /Sivan, 2000/ Knowledge Age Standards: A Brief Introduction to Their Dimensions

Dimension 1:
Dimension 2:
Dimension 3:
Dimension 4:
Dimension 5:
Individual Simplification Constructive Devoid Missing
Organisational Communication Positive Nonsponsored Emerging
Associational Harmonisation Unknown Unisponsored Existing
National Protection Negative Multisponsored Declining
Multinational Valuation Destructive Mandated Dying

Reference /Choh, 1999a/ Governance Mechanisms of Standard-Making in the Information Technology
We can focus on a relationship between the governance mechanisms and standards while abstracted from each sector's industrial configuration. In the information technology industry, five distinctive governance mechanisms on standardisation have been identified, the state, community, association, network, and market. Each governance mechanisms has its own principles in solving the conflict between collective and private interests.

The market mechanism is guided by the principle of competition in the context of maximisation of self-interest. The guiding principle of the network mechanism is voluntary cooperation in the market; organised consensus is the guiding principle of the association mechanism. The state's coordinating capacity is based on its legitimate coercion in the industry. And, the community exercises its coordination effects in the industry with voluntary contributions based on openess.

Governance mode Mechanisms Property Relations of Technology Standards Outcome
The state Coercive impose Public good Regulatory standards
Community Normative impose based on voluntary contribution Public good Voluntary standards
Association Pragmatic consensus Industry quasi-public good Formal standards
Network Self-interest agreement Proprietary technology Anticipatory standards
Market Self-interest non-agreement Proprietary technology De facto standards

Reference /Wende, 1999/ Experiences and Positions of the DIN IT Standards Committee

Source Platform Level of Consensus Openness, Transparency, Procedures Motivation of Members Time/ Effort Deliverable
single companies (MS; SUN,...) the company closed, internal rules homogeneous low proprietary specification
consortia (W3C; ECMA,...) members (companies) open for paying members (companies), published rules homogeneous low specification (standard)
Association (IEEE; VDE,...) members (individual experts) open for paying members (individuals), published rules more or less homogeneous medium specification standard
Standard bodies (IISI; CEN, DIN) all interested parties, public, delegation principle open for all interested parties, publicly accepted and published rules, consensus-based process in-homogeneous, diffuse high Norm, formal standard
Internet (IETF) all interested individuals with internet access open for the internet community, published rules more or less homogeneous low specification standard

See also

Standard Classification
Standard Definitions
Standard Development Phases
Standard Lifecycle
Standard Organisations
Lifecycles, Software Process Models, Software Process Standards

GDPA Online Last Updated 17.Apr.2002 Updated by Webmaster Last Revised 17.Apr.2002 Revised by Webmaster