|4.17 Elementary Method "Failure Mode Effect Analysis" (FMEA)|
The Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method used for the identification of potential error types in order to define its effect on the examined object (System, Segment, SW/HW Unit) and to classify the error types with regard to criticality or persistency. This is to prevent errors and thus weak points in the design which might result in a endangering or loss of the system/software and/or in an endangering of the persons connected with the system/software. The FMEA is also to furnish results for corrective measures, for the definition of test cases and for the determination of operating and application conditions of the system/software.
Means of Representation
Means to represent the FMEA are e. g.:
The basic principle is that both in the functional hierarchy and in the program logic defined success or error criteria are systematically (functionally and chronologically) queried: what happens if? This analysis and evaluation has to be realized for all operating phases and operating possibilities.
The FMEA process consists of the following main steps:
|4.1||Project Management (PM)||
Method FMEA is means to realize catastrophe analysis and risk analysis; originally it was designed for the safety analysis of systems. Therefore, in order to apply FMEA in the PM a certain new orientation is required. In this connection the steps and techniques of the FMEA remain unchanged. Only the examined objects, the risks, and the effects must be transformed in order to meet PM requirements.
The operational sequence of FMEA in submodel PM is as follows:
In a prospective risk analysis, analyses are made constantly of the current schedule, personnel, and resource situation in order to detect and prevent possible problems at an early stage.
In a retrospective risk analysis, past problems are analyzed in order to get information that might help to prevent these problems in the future.
|4.1.1||PM1.5 - Generation of Preliminary Plan||In PM1.5, method FMEA is applied for the prospective risk analysis; in this connection it completely covers the subproduct Project Plan.Risk Considerations.|
|4.1.2||PM7 - Risk Management||In PM7 - Risk Management, method FMEA is applied for a prospective risk analysis; method NPT - Network Planning Technique must be applied additionally. In this connection, FMEA is used to detect risks, NPT is used to calculate risks. Together these methods meet the product requirements of subactivity PM 7.|
|4.1.3||PM8 - Project Control||Within the scope of the project steering, method FMEA is applied both for a prospective and for a retrospective risk analysis. FMEA is completed by the BA which supports the selection of the possibilities defined in the above mentioned steps 5 to 7. Together these methods meet the requirements of subproduct Project Plan.Risk Considerations.|
|4.2||SD1.3 - Definition of Criticality and Quality Requirements||
Method FMEA is applied to define and explain the criticality levels of the system functions.
By applying FMEA the subproduct User Requirements.Criticality of the System is completely covered.
|4.3||SD3.4 - Definition of Requirements for the Quality of the SW/HS Unit||
The decomposition of the total functionality of the system into segments and/or SW Units will be described.
Method FMEA is applied to define and explain the criticality levels of the functions of the SW/HW Unit.
By applying FMEA the subproduct 5.x.4.1.Technical Requirements.Criticality is completely covered.
|4.4||QA2.3 - Definition of Test Cases||
In the case where the reliability requirements are high, method FMEA is applied to define test cases for the following objects to be assessed:
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