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Annex 2  
2.1 The Complex Method GRAPES  

  GRAPES - Graphical Engineering System

  • 1 Brief Description
  • 2 Tabular Comparison
  • 3 Specification of the Allocation
  • 4 Literature
  • 1 Brief Description

    GRAPES (Graphical Engineering System) is a system development method designed to support the entire software development process, from the problem analysis to the implementation.

    The modeling language GRAPES-86 is the central part and makes it possible to specify structure, behavior, and data from information processing systems, in particular from distributed systems like company organizations and network architectures.

    GRAPES-86 has a formal, defined text and graphic syntax, therefore it can be statically assessed. Furthermore, GRAPES-86 includes a dynamic processing model. Thus the dynamic behavior of GRAPES models can be simulated and analyzed.

    GRAPES supports concurrency, synchronous and asynchronous communication concepts (structured process descriptions), entity relationship modeling, and object-oriented concepts like modularization and strong typing.

    To represent models with GRAPES, diagrams with a limited supply of graphical symbols are utilized. These diagrams make it possible to map essential characteristics of a total system - structure, processes, and information - in form of models and to improve them successively. The various diagram types cover several aspects of the system description. Next the methodical components are briefly described:

    A description of the lifecycle process model of SNI can be found in the process manual for the generation of application software and the realization of projects /PHB, 1991/. The GRAPES method is based on a model cycle, beginning with the actual model and continuing with the planned model, the user-level, preliminary and detailed model up to the DP model. For more information about the GRAPES method also see the method comparison GRAPES/SSADM in /Duschl, 1992/ realized by SNI and CCTA.

    GRAPES is part of the open, integrated process engineering method DOMINO. Aspects of the system development like e. g. project management, documentation system, etc. that are not covered by GRAPES are completed in DOMINO with methods and tools adjusted to GRAPES.

    GRAPES was developed by Siemens Nixdorf Informationssysteme AG (SNI) or respectively Siemens AG and applied in a large number of projects. The method is constantly upgraded and adjusted to modern software engineering technologies.

    2 Tabular Comparison

    The following table compares the basic methods of the GD 251 with the methodical components of GRAPES. In the case where there is no entry in the right column of the table, GRAPES has no corresponding component. Otherwise an entry refers to the corresponding part in the GRAPES literature. Section 3 of the comparison contains explanations for the entries. Entries identified with (*) refer to basic methods completely covered by GRAPES. These are not further explained in section 3.

    Comparison of the Basic Methods and the
    Methodological Components of GRAPES
    AUD - Audit  
    ACC - Analysis of Covert Channels  
    BAR - Bar Plan  
    TREE - Tree Diagram Hierarchy Diagram /Held, 1990/ chap. 9
    BBTD - Black Box Test Case Design  
    CRC - Class Responsibility Collaboration  
    DIAL - Dialog Design Modeling  
    DFM - Data Flow Modeling Communication Diagrams
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 5.1 (*)
    DNAV - Data Navigation Modeling  
    DVER - Design Verification  
    ELH - Entity Life History  
    ER - E/R Modeling Entity Relationship Modeling /Held, 1990/ chap. 7.4 and Information Modeling /Held, 1991a/ part I (*)
    DTAB - Decision Table Technique  
    EVT - Earned Value Method  
    EXPM - Expertise Model  
    FCTD - Functional Decomposition Structure Modeling /Held, 1990/ chap. 5 and Function Modeling /Held, 1991a/ part II
    FMEA - Failure Mode Effect Analysis  
    FNET - Function Net Modeling  
    FS - Formal Specification  
    IAM - Interaction Modeling  
    CFM - Control Flow Modeling Process Modeling /Held, 1990/ chap. 6
    COM - Class/Object Modeling  
    LOGM - Logical DB Modeling Procedure of the Data Design /GRAPES-RDDG, 1993/ chap. 3 (*)
    MODIAG - Module Diagrams  
    NORM - Normalization Procedure of the Data Design /GRAPES-RDDG, 1993/ chap. 3 and Information Modeling /Held, 1991a/ part I chap. 2.2 (*)
    NPT - Network Planning Technique  
    BA - Benefit Analysis  
    ODT - Object Design Technique Objektorientierte Modellierung informationsverarbeitender Systeme /Held, 1990/ Kapitel 2
    OGC - Organizational Chart  
    PCODE - Pseudocode Procedures /Held, 1990/ chapter 6.3 (*) PRODIAG Process Diagrams
    PVER - Program Verification  
    PIM - Process Interaction Modeling  
    REV - Review  
    SIMU - Simulation Models Diskrete Simulation /GrapSim, 1993/ Kapitel 4 (*)
    EMOD - Estimation Models  
    SSM - Subsystem Modeling  
    STAT - Static Analysis Syntax and Semantics Definition /Held, 1990/ chap. 3, 5.2, 6.7, 6.9, 7.5
    STRD - Structured Design Module Specification /Held, 1990/ chap. 6.6
    SBM - System Behavior Models Object-Oriented Modeling of Information Processing Systems /Held, 1990/ chap. 2 and Semantics of the Process Diagrams chap. 6.7
    T - Test  
    TRDA - Trend Analysis  
    UCM - Use Case Modeling  
    WBTD - White Box Test Case Design  
    STM - State Transition Modeling  
    STMO - State Modeling in the OO Field  
    RELM - Reliability Models  

    Table 2.1: Basic Methods-GRAPES

    3 Specification of the Allocation

    in GRAPES
    Tree Diagram
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 9: Hierarchy Diagram The hierarchy diagram documents the decomposition structure into the components of a system by means of a tree form. It illustrates the functional hierarchy and the allocated diagrams like process diagrams, data tables, specification diagrams, etc.
    Functional Decomposition
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 5 Based on the model structure described in the hierarchy diagram a functional decomposition can be extracted by reducing the hierarchy diagram to the object relationships. A detailed representation can be found in the Information and Function Modeling with GRAPES /Held, 1991a/.
    Control Flow Modeling
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 5 General control flows can be modeled by means of process diagrams. The interaction of the processes can also be described by process diagrams, i. e. if this representation is required. The control flow of a model is completely defined by the process descriptions of its elementary objects and by the communication relationships (synchronous/asynchronous), though. The interaction of the individual processes (activation, deactivation) must be collected in separate diagrams, according to CFM.
    Object Design Technique
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 2 The system view of GRAPES is the hierarchical decomposition of the system into a set of communicating objects. Objects are either composed of other communicating objects (structure object), elementary objects with local data storage and locally defined input/output behavior (process objects), or data management objects the content of which is explained by means of an E/R diagram (data stores).

    Furthermore, object types can be declared for multiple use or reuse. Even though primarily intended for the design phase it is also applied for the modeling during the analysis phase. In order to further develop the object-oriented approach in GRAPES-86 it is referred to the book Object-Oriented System Development /Held, 1991a/.

    Static Analysis
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 3 + 5.2 + 6.7 + 6.9 + 7.5 The syntax and semantics of the modeling language is formally defined. Thus it is possible to statically check the syntax as well as the model consistency of the three system views structure, behavior, and data automatically. This comprises the existence of sources and sinks of all communication paths and the consistent declaration and utilization of variables, parameters, and its data types. /GRAPES-SD, 1993/ contains a detailed description of the realization of static analysis and the corresponding results.
    Structured Design
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 6.6 GRAPES contains mechanisms to specify and define modules (specification diagrams). They allow the specification of procedures, functions, and submodules with its formal parameters and data types. The module hierarchy has to be additionally represented in Structure Charts, according to STRD.
    System Behavior Models
    /Held, 1990/ chap. 2 and chap. 6.7 GRAPES models a system composed of cooperating objects. The system behavior is derived from the interaction of the elementary process objects. It is based on an operational semantic network of communicating, upgraded state automata. GRAPES processes are special because of local data, special branching (parallel branching, selective waiting with fairness condition) and because each connection has its own waiting queue.

    4 Literature

    /Duschl, 1992/ SSADM & GRAPES, Two Complementary Major European Methodologies for Information Systems Engineering
    /GRAPES-RDDG, 1993/ GRAPES RDDG, Benutzerhandbuch V 1.0
    /GRAPES-SD, 1993/ GRAPES SD, Benutzerhandbuch V 2.0
    /GrapSim, 1993/ GRAPES-Simulator V 1.0. Benutzerhandbuch
    /Held, 1990/ Sprachbeschreibung GRAPES
    /Held, 1991a/ Objektorientierte Systementwicklung
    /PHB, 1991/ Prozeßhandbuch für die Erstellung von Anwendersoftware und Realisierung von Projekten

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