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Annex 2  
2.3 The complex Method ISOTEC  

  ISOTEC - Integrated Software Technology

  • 1 Brief Description
  • 2 Tabular Comparison
  • 3 Specification of the Allocation
  • 4 Literature
  • 1 Brief Description

    ISOTEC (Integrated Software Technology) supports the development of application systems and the integration of standard software, both organizationally and technically, for the entire software lifecycle. In this connection it applies coordinated, general concepts and specific methods. The aim is to model information systems which are typically implemented on (relational) database systems. The general concepts of ISOTEC applied for the entire software development process are as follows:

    Apart from the general concepts, ISOTEC offers methods specially supporting the software development process during individual development phases. These methods are:

    The methods are coordinated and support the entire software development process. ISOTEC was developed by the consulting company Ploenzke. Since starting with the development in 1981, ISOTEC was applied and continually further developed in many internal and external projects. The present comparison refers to the version June 1991 /Ploenzke, 1991/.

    2 Tabular Comparison

    The following table compares the basic methods of the GD 251 with the methodical components of ISOTEC. In the case where there is no entry in the right column of the table, ISOTEC does not contain a corresponding component. Otherwise an entry refers to the corresponding part in the ISOTEC literature. Section 3 of the comparison contains explanations for the entries. Entries identified with (*) refer to basic completely covered by ISOTEC. These are not further described in section 3.

    Comparison of the Basic Methods and the
    Methodological Components of ISOTEC
    AUD - Audit  
    ACC - Analysis of Covert Channels  
    BAR - Bar Plan  
    TREE - Tree Diagram  
    BBTD - Black Box Test Case Design Quality Assurance
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 2.3.2
    CRC - Class Responsibility Collaboration  
    DIAL - Dialog Design Modeling Structuring and Specification of System Functions
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ Appendix A (*)
    DFM - Data Flow Modeling Functional Structure Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 4.4
    DNAV - Data Navigation Modeling  
    DVER - Design Verification  
    ELH - Entity Life History Information Structure Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 4.4
    ER - E/R Modeling Information Structure Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 4.2 (*)
    DTAB - Decision Table Technique  
    EVT - Earned Value Method  
    EXPM - Expertise Model  
    FCTD - Functional Decomposition Functional Structure Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 3.4 (*)
    FMEA - Failure Mode Effect Analysis  
    FNET - Function Net Modeling Functional Structure Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 4.2 (*)
    FS - Formal Specification  
    IAM - Interaction Modeling  
    CFM - Control Flow Modeling  
    COM - Class/Object Modeling  
    LOGM - Logical DB Modeling System-Specific Data Structure Design
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 4.1
    MODIAG - Module Diagrams  
    NORM - Normalization Information Structure Analysis /Ploenzke, 1991/, chap. 5.3 (*)
    NPT - Network Planning Technique PM Concept
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. H11
    BA - Benefit Analysis  
    ODT - Object Design Technique  
    OGC - Organizational Chart  
    PCODE - Pseudocode Specification of the System Functions
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 3.6.3 (*)
    PRODIAG - Process Diagrams  
    PVER - Program Verification  
    PIM - Process Interaction Modeling  
    REV - Review Quality Assurance
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. "Code Inspection"
    and chap. "Walk-Through"
    SIMU - Simulation Models  
    EMOD - Estimation Models PM Concept, Estimation Method IFA
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ Appendix A
    SSM - Subsystem Modeling  
    STAT - Static Analysis  
    STRD - Structured Design Specification of the System Functions
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 3.2
    SBM - System Behavior Models  
    T - Test Quality Assurance
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 2.3.2 "Black Box Test"
    and chap. 2.3.3 "White Box Methods"
    TRDA - Trend Analysis PM Concept
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. D53
    UCM - Use Case Modeling  
    WBTD - White Box Test Case Design Quality Assurance
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ chap. 2.3.3
    STM - State Transition Modeling  
    STMO - State Modeling in the OO Field  
    RELM - Reliability Models  

    Table 2.3: Basic Methods-ISOTEC

    3 Specification of the Allocation

    in ISOTEC
    Black Box Test Case Design
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ QS Quality Assurance, chap. 2.3.3 "Black Box Test", p. 43 In a black box test, the program architecture as well as the program logic are not taken into consideration, i. e. the program is the black box. Of great importance are the test data and the expected results. The ISOTEC methods cover the areas
    • generation of equivalence classes,
    • marginal value analysis, and
    • intuitive test case generation.
    The test realization is also described.
    Data Flow Modeling
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ FSA Functional Structure Analysis chap 4.4 "Content of the Communication Structure", p. 67 The communication structure describes the data exchanged between functions of the system and the external partners, between functions and information objects, and between two functions. The means of representation is a communication diagram.
    The elements of the communication structure correspond to those of the data flow modeling. Data store is not required, though, since in this case ISOTEC utilizes the information structure.
    Entity Life History
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ ISA Information Structure Analysis chap. 4.3.4 "State Conditions and Transition Conditions", p. 73 State conditions and transition conditions control the integrity of an information structure. The states permitted for an entity and the operations permitted in certain states are defined. The result is recorded in a state diagram.
    Logical DB Modeling
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ SDS System-specific Data Structure
    Design, chap. 4.1 "Mapping the Objects", p. 49
    The system-specific data structure design, i. e. the derivation of a technical data model from the information structure is subject of a separate method. The manual describes the mapping of objects to the target systems ADABAS 5.1 and DB2 2.2.
    Network Planning Technique
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ PM Concept chap. H11 "Network Planning Technique", p. 142 The network planning technique is utilized for the structuring of projects on activity level. By applying this technique it is possible to model, optimize, and graphically represent the chronological and logical course of the project by means of a network plan.
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ QS Quality Assurance chap. "Review", p. 38, chap. "Code Inspection" p. 40, chap. "Walkthrough", p. 42 Contrary to inspection, review is primarily utilized for the evaluation a finished product by an expert team.
    When realizing a code inspection, a team is to detect faults by reading the program code together, i. e. the team is to find out deviations from the programming standard and situations during which the program does not behave according to the specification.
    In ISOTEC, the method is described for the special case code inspection; however, it can also be applied for all other V-model products.
    In a walkthrough, the team "plays" computer in a group meeting on the basis of the program code and with previously specified test cases.
    In ISOTEC, the method is described for the products developed during the software generation, however it can also be applied for all other V-model products.
    Estimation Models
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ PM Project Management Appendix A "Estimation Method IFA" (Function Point-oriented effort estimation based on ISOTEC) The function-related effort planning (IFA) generates an estimation for the expected resource demand in order to meet the requirements. The estimation is based on a unit of measurement (e. g. man months for personnel demand) appropriate for the individual type of resource. This estimation is then used as the basis for the capacity, schedule, and cost planning.
    The estimation has to be realized by utilizing the relevant information at the various times during the course of the project. The method assumes a project handling according to ISOTEC.
    Structured Design
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ SSF Specification of System Functions, chap. 3.2 "System Functions", p. 48 On the function side, the application model is decomposed into system functions (modules). Pseudocode can be used as a means to specify the system functions. The system functions are interrelated in a call or initialization relationship. Structure charts are used as means of representation. Apart from the control flow, these charts also represent the information flows between the system functions.
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ QS Quality Assurance chap. 2.3.2 Black Box Tests, p. 43, chap. 2.3.3 "White Box Methods", p. 53 The ISOTEC methods cover the black box test as well as the white box test.
    Trend Analysis
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ PM Concept, chap. D53 "Management Report", p. 88 The information contained in the management report about the time schedule situation of the project and the relation between planned and actual efforts are illustrated in a trend analysis.
    White Box Test Case Design
    /Ploenzke, 1991/ QS Quality Assurance chap. 2.3.3 "White Box Methods", p. 53 The ISOTEC methods cover the range
    • instruction coverage
    • branch/condition coverage
    • condition coverage.
    The realization of the tests is also described.

    4 Literature

    /Ploenzke, 1991/ Ploenzke Informatik

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