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Annex 2  
2.5 The complex Methods SA and SA/RT  

  SA/RT - Structured Analysis with Real-time-Extensions

  • 1 Brief Description
  • 2 Tabular Comparison
  • 3 Specification of the Allocation
  • 4 Information about individual Components
  • 5 Further Information
  • 6 Literature
  • 1 Brief Description

    SA (Structured Analysis) and SA/RT (Structured Analysis with Real-time-Extensions) are complex methods which today belong to the most frequently applied methods for the system analysis. RT or respectively the RT model is no independent method but an upgrade of SA including real-time-specific elements; therefore it does not make sense to consider RT separately. In the following, SA/RT is thus referred to as the general term.

    Both SA and SA/RT have several versions that are also found in the tools. For SA, the versions according to /DeMarco, 1978/ and /Gane, 1979/are relevant, the relevant versions for SA/RT are the descriptions in /Ward, 1985/ and /Hatley, 1987/. The following brief description refers to the works of DeMarco and Hatley/Pirbhai the way they are described in /Hatley, 1987/; the differences to the other authors are small and will be explained in chapter 5.

    SA or SA/RT support the main activities SD1 - System Requirements Analysis to SD3 - SW/HW Requirements Analysis, i. e. all three levels of the requirements analysis. While SA is not restricted to a special scope of application, SA/RT is predominantly applied in technical, real-time-oriented applications. The components of the complex method SA are:

    In addition, the complex method SA/RT contains the following components:

    Figure 2.1 illustrates how the components for SA and RT cooperate.

    Figure 2.1
    Figure 2.1: Overview Diagram Complex Methods SA and SA/RT

    2 Tabular Comparison

    The following table compares the basic methods of the GD 251 with the methodical components of SA and SA/RT. In the case where there is no entry in the right column of the table, SA and SA/RT have no corresponding component. Otherwise, an entry refers to the corresponding part in the SA and SA/RT literature. The entry is explained in section 3 of the comparison. Entries identified with (*) refer to basic methods completely covered by SA and SA/RT. These are not further described in section 3.

    The right column of the table contains the names of several authors. This has to be interpreted in such a way that an application of SA or respectively SA/RT is possible according to any one of these authors.

    Comparison of the Basic Methods and the
    Methodological Components of SA
    AUD - Audit  
    ACC - Analysis of Covert Channels  
    BAR - Bar Plan  
    TREE - Tree Diagram  
    BBTD - Black Box Test Case Design  
    CRC - Class Responsibility Collaboration  
    DIAL - Dialog Design Modeling  
    DFM - Data Flow Modeling Data Flow Diagrams (*) /Hatley, 1987/ Appendix A A.2 and A.3 /Gane, 1979/ chap. 3 /Ward, 1985/ volume 1, chap. 6
    DNAV - Data Navigation Modeling  
    DVER - Design Verification  
    ELH - Entity Life History  
    ER - E/R Modeling  
    DTAB - Decision Table Technique Decision Tables (*)
    /Hatley, 1987/ chap. 6.1,
    /Gane, 1979/ chap. 5.3
    /Ward, 1985/ volume 1, chap. 8
    EVT - Earned Value Method  
    EXPM - Expertise Model  
    FCTD - Functional Decomposition Process Hierarchy
    /Hatley, 1987/ chap. 12.1,
    /Gane, 1979/ chap. 4
    /Ward, 1985/ volume 2, chap. 5 and 6
    FMEA - Failure Mode Effect Analysis  
    FNET - Function Net Modeling  
    FS - Formal Specification  
    IAM - Interaction Modeling  
    CFM - Control Flow Modeling Control Flow Diagrams (*) (**)
    /Hatley, 1987/ Appendix A, A.3
    /Ward, 1985/ volume 2, chapters 2-6
    COM - Class/Object Modeling  
    LOGM - Logical DB Modeling  
    MODIAG - Module Diagrams  
    NORM - Normalization  
    NORM - Normalization  
    BA - Benefit Analysis  
    ODT - Object Design Technique  
    OGC - Organizational Chart  
    PCODE - Pseudocode  
    PRODIAG - Process Diagrams  
    PVER - Program Verification  
    PIM - Process Interaction Modeling  
    REV - Review  
    SIMU - Simulation Models  
    EMOD - Estimation Models  
    SSM - Subsystem Modeling  
    STAT - Static Analysis  
    STRD - Structured Design  
    SBM - System Behavior Models  
    T - Test  
    TRDA - Trend Analysis  
    UCM - Use Case Modeling  
    WBTD - White Box Test Case Design  
    STM - State Transition Modeling State Transition Diagrams (*) (**) /Hatley, 1987/ chap. 6 /Ward, 1985/ volume 2, chapters 2-6
    STMO - State Modeling in the OO Field  
    RELM - Reliability Models  

    Table 2.5: Basic Methods-SA and SA/RT

    3 Specification of the Allocation

    in SA
    Functional Decomposition
    Process Hierarchy
    /Hatley, 1987/ chap. 12.1, /Gane, 1979/ chap. 4
    /Ward, 1985/ volume 2, chap. 5 and 6
    If the data flow model with its hierarchical process structure is generated prior to a function tree (according to FCTD), a function tree can still be generated by extracting the processes from the data flow model and recording to them as separate tree. This tree can then be used as the basis for a function tree. This function tree is frequently upgraded by additional functions (e. g. organizational functions or manual activities) that are essential for the corresponding project.

    4 Information about individual Components

    5 Further Information

    5.1 SA and SA/RT Versions

    5.2 Further Development of SA and SA/RT

    Today, the terms "Modern Structured Analysis" /Yourdon, 1989/, "Advanced Structured Analysis" /Peters, 1988/ etc. refer to a number of publications about the further development of SA and SA/RT.

    /Yourdon, 1989/, e. g. summarizes the know-how and experience with regard to the structured analysis since the publication of /DeMarco, 1978/. Though a new method is not really propagated, SA and SA/RT are seen in the entire SW engineering environment. In this connection, the interrelation of individual methodical components as well as the transition to the SW design play an important role. Furthermore, it is considered as state of the art to apply method E/R together with SA or respectively SA/RT within the scope of information modeling.

    6 Literature

    /DeMarco, 1978/ Structured Analysis and System Specification
    /Gane, 1979/ Structured Systems Analysis - Tools and Techniques
    /Hatley, 1987/ Strategies for Real-Time System Specification
    /Peters, 1988/ Advanced Structured Analysis and Design
    /Ward, 1985/ Structured Development for Real-Time Systems
    /Yourdon, 1989/ Modern Structured Analysis

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