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Test Generation Benchmarks

 

Overview


Description of test cases, test configuration and test results files

The test cases specification file

File testcases.csv specifies all test cases related to model coverage criteria: each model coverage goal is identified by means of a test case tag and a logical formula specifying the constraint for covering the goal. The current baseline of the benchmark model specifies the goals for

  • Basic Control State (BCS) coverage
    The goals consist in reaching basic control states in (potentially hierarchic) state machines of the model.

  • State Machine Transition (TR) coverage
    The goals consist in covering transitions between (higher- or lower-level) control states of state machines.

  • MC/DC Coverage
    The objective is again to cover state machine transitions, with the refinement that guard conditions a && b should be covered with different cases a && b, a && !b, !a && b, and guard conditions a || b should be covered with test cases a && !b, !a && b, !a && !b, as far as possible (for more complex Boolean expressions the MC/DC criteria are refined in a natural way).

All test cases are automatically derived from the model by the RT-Tester symbolic test case generator and specified in file testcases.csv with the following syntax:
test-case-tag;[test-case-specification];

The test case tag is a unique identifier carrying the type of coverage goal (BCS, TR, MCDC) in its name. The test case specification spec is a logical formula with inputs, outputs, model variables and basic control states as free variables. It specifies the condition to be fulfilled by at least one model state, in order to cover the test case. Interpreting the test case specification as an LTL formula, an implicit "F (Finally)" has to added, in the sense that "finally a model state satisfying spec has to be reached" in order to cover the test case. For example,
TC-turn_indication-BCS-0026; ["IMR.SystemUnderTest.LampControl.DisplayLights.IC_L.IC_L.OFF"@0];
specifies that finally a model state should be reached where state machine IMR.SystemUnderTest.LampControl.DisplayLights.IC_L is in basic control state OFF. Note that for state machine transition coverage the constraint to be fulfilled is not just "the guard condition should be true" but "the guard condition should be true AND ((the source location is a basic control state AND the state machine should be in this control state when the model state is reached) OR (the source location is a higher-level control state AND the state machine is in one of its sub-ordinate basic control states)) AND no higher-priority transition is enabled". This condition is called the trigger condition of the state machine transition. For example, test case
TC-turn_indication-TR-0047; [("IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.SendCrashBits.IMPACT_CONFIRMED"@0 && (("_timeTick"@0 - "IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.t"@0) >= 20))];
specifies that finally a model state should be reached where state machine IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.SendCrashBits is in control state IMPACT_CONFIRMED and that 20ms have passed since setting the timer t. Test case
TC-turn_indication-TR-0048; [(("IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.SendCrashBits.IMPACT_CONFIRMED"@0 && (("_timeTick"@0 - "IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.t"@0) < 20)) && ("IMR.SystemUnderTest.CrashFlashing.SendCrashBits.ctr"@0 >= 50))];
specifies the trigger condition for the lower-priority condition emanating from control state IMPACT_CONFIRMED to be covered: the timer t should not have elapsed yet and the local variable ctr should have a value greater than or equal to 20.

Coverage of symbolic test cases

A symbolic test case TC is covered if the SUT performs a computation satisfying the LTL formula associated with TC. To this end, the generator will calculate a sequence of input vectors to the SUT and associated timing conditions or wait conditions for some expected output of the SUT, such that this input sequence stimulates a SUT computation covering TC. If such an input sequence can be found, we say that the generator discharges the test case: a test procedure executing the input sequence will drive the SUT through a computation satisfying the TC specification formula.

Configuration of the test generation process

Each test generation benchmark is accompanied by three CSV-files:

  1. Goals-File

    The goals-file specifies all test cases to be covered by the test procedure which is to be generated. Each line in the goals-file is formatted like a test case
    test-case-tag;[test-case-specification];
    as described for file testcases.csv above.

  2. Configuration-File

    The configuration-file lists all model components and allows generation-dependent activation or de-activation of environment simulations. In principle, this configuration file can also be used to de-activate incomplete components during SUT model development or to de-activate component variants, if the SUT model contains different alternatives of SUT behavior which are only activated in specific configurations (so-called 150% models). These possibilities, however, are not used in the current turn indication model discussed here. The attributes of configuration-files are described in the following table:

    Column Name Description
    Name Name of the component, statechart or location, respectively.
    Simulation Marked with an 'X' if this entry belongs to the environment simulation.
    Deactivated Marked with an 'X' if this part of the model is deactivated, so that it will be disregarded during the generation process.

  3. Signalmap-File

    The signalmap-file lists system interface variables and their admissible value range. The attributes of signalmap-files are described in the following table:

    Column Name Description
    Abstract Signal The system interface variable.
    lower bound Lower bound of the variable.
    upper bound Upper bound of the variable.

Generation results

The generation results file contains the test data created in the test generation run. This comprises both input data to the SUT and the internal transitions of model state, as well as the outputs from SUT to test environment. While the input data has been calculated by the constraint solver, the internal transitions and (expected) outputs have been determined by an interpreter executing the model from the current pre-state with the input data from the solver. The generation results file has the following structure:

File Section Description
Signal Specifications This is the first section of the file with syntax:

signalspec ::= signalspec { signal_specifications }
signal_specifications ::= empty | signal_specifications , "signal_name" lower_bound upper_bound
signal_name ::= signal name or basic control state name, as used in the model
lower_bound ::= smallest signal value assigned during the test generation (represented as floating point value)
upper_bound ::= biggest signal value assigned during the test generation (represented as floating point value)

Model computation This section follows after the signal specification. It contains the complete computation associated with the test generation, structured according to the following syntax:

model_computation ::= empty | model_computation timestep timestamp { state_specification }
state_specification ::= empty | state_specification , "signal_name" value
value ::= current signal value (represented as floating point value); for basic control states value 1.0 indicates that the associated state machines resides in this state

In addition to the test data created, the full set of test cases discharged by the generated test data is listed in the format
time-stamp;test-case-tag


Test Strength Benchmarks

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Test Generation Benchmarks

This section contains benchmarks of the classification 'test generation benchmarks' and corresponding run-times of the RT-Tester tool whose model-based test generation component RTT-MBT has been used as reference tool for creating the tests.

Basic Control State Coverage Tests

The following three tests generate 100% BCS coverage, causing one SUT reset per test. No backtracking or random simulation techniques were applied, only the SMT solver accelerated by abstract interpretation. The whole generation process took 207s. The following tables refer to the configuration of each test generation process and give short descriptions of what the generated tests do. Test BCS 001 covers all basic control states related to crash flashing, Test BCS 002 covers states related to left/right and emergency flashing, and Test BCS 003 focusses on coverage of control states related to theft alarms.


Test BCS 001
Description: Test BCS 001 handles situations where crash flashing is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 139s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test BCS 002
Description: Test BCS 002 handles situations where emergency flashing (without crash flashing) and left/right flashing are activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 40s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test BCS 003
Description: Test BCS 003 handles situations where theft alarm is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 28s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

State Machine Transition Coverage Tests

The following two tests generate 100% state machine transition coverage, causing one SUT reset per test. No backtracking or random simulation techniques were applied, only the SMT solver accelerated by abstract interpretation. The whole generation process took 229s. The following tables refer to the configuration of each test generation process and give short descriptions of what the generated tests do.


Test TR 001
Description: Test TR 001 handles situations where crash flashing is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 12s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 002
Description: Test TR 002 handles a situation where sidemarkers are de-activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 6s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 003
Description: Test TR 003 handles a special situation where crash flashing is activated for a special purpose vehicle.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 6s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 004
Description: Test TR 004 handles situations where emergency flashing is switched off.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 11s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 005
Description: Test TR 005 handles situations where crash flashing is switched off after a timeout.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 9s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 006
Description: Test TR 006 handles situations where open-close flashing is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 6s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 007
Description: Test TR 007 handles situations where turn flashing is activated while emergency flashing is active.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 147
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 008
Description: Test TR 008 handles situations where turn flashing is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 6s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 009
Description: Test TR 009 handles situations where turn flashin is activated for special purpose vehicles.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 12s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 010
Description: Test TR 010 handles situations where turn flashing is activated.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 7s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

Test TR 011
Description: Test TR 011 handles situations where turn flashin is activated for special purpose vehicles.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 6s
Machine: 2.90GHz GHz Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2667
64GB Memory
Visualize Test Data

MC/DC Coverage Tests

The following tests are run in addition to the state machine transition coverage tests. Together, they generate 100% MC/DC coverage, causing one SUT reset per test. No backtracking or random simulation techniques were applied, only the SMT solver accelerated by abstract interpretation. The whole generation process took 309s [transition coverage] + 25s [MCDC tests] = 334s. The following tables refer to the configuration of each test generation process and give short descriptions of what the generated tests do.


Test MCDC 001
Description: Test MCDC 001 handles situations related to determination of affected sidemarkers and trailer lamps when they are available.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 5s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Test MCDC 002
Description: Test MCDC 002 handles situations related to determination of affected sidemarkers and trailer lamps when they are not available.
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 11s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Test MCDC 005
Description: Test MCDC 005 maximises MCDC coverage (all testcases not covered by tests MCDC 001 - MCDC 004).
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 9s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Coverage of Combinations of Basic Control State Pairs of Interacting Components With Pairs of Influencing Input Equivalence Classes

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

Application-Specific Tests

Our application-specific ("user-defined") test cases are symbolic test cases specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL).


Test UD 001
Description: Tip Flashing
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 3s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Test UD 002
Description: Left/Right and Emergency Flashing
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 9s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Test UD 003
Description: Theft Flashing and Open/Close Flashing
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 3s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

Test UD 004
Description: Crash Flashing
Files: Test Cases to be Covered (Goals)
Configuration
Signal Map
Generation Results (internal format)
Generation Results (json format)
Test Cases Covered by Generated Procedure
Generation Time: 976s
Machine: MacBook Pro 2.3 GHz Intel Core i7
8GB Memory

 
   
Author: jp
 
  AG BS 
Last updated: October 16, 2015   Impressum